At the heart of any building or structure is the foundation. But, unfortunately, there is nothing eternal in this world. The foundation of houses is no exception, which from time to time, as well as under the influence of adverse factors, can no longer continue to perform its functions in the form in which it was originally.
In such cases, restoration or repair of the foundation is required, which may partially collapse or deform for a variety of reasons. At the same time, problems with the foundation do not mean at all that it needs to stop being used for its intended purpose and start looking for or building another building, in most cases repairing the foundation will be quite enough so that you can continue to use the building.
Why do cracks appear in the foundation?
cracks in the fundamental causes of cracks in the base of the house mass. Some of them are on the conscience of the builders, others do not depend on anyone. It happens that the house has not been built yet, and cracks have already appeared on the foundation, then the reasons are:
- poor quality of the materials from which the mixture is prepared, or the proportions are not observed when preparing the mixture;
- errors in the installation of the formwork and reinforcement frame, the choice of reinforcement of insufficient cross-section;
- erroneous calculation of the foundation structure;
- the beginning of masonry walls before the final solidification of concrete;
- insufficient compaction of concrete, resulting in the formation of air bubbles;
- drainage is performed incorrectly, which is why water gets into the base.
Cracks can also occur during the operation of a building for a number of reasons:
- swelling of the soil when groundwater is high;
- strong temperature changes;
- earthquakes, vibrations from nearby businesses;
- violation of the waterproofing layer.How to Guid
As soon as a crack is detected, it must be taken under control. Water can get into it, which can gradually lead to the destruction of the concrete monolith.
Types of cracks in the foundation
Cracks that appear on the foundation can be of the following types:
- a crack in the deflection or bending of the foundation is formed due to a violation of the technology of the foundation device;
- crack when the building is skewed due to subsidence on one of the sections of the foundation;
- crack in the roll of a tall building due to unilateral subsidence;
- crack during lateral shift of the building;
- crack at horizontal displacement.
There are cracks in the direction of propagation:
Horizontal cracks are almost always a consequence of a violation of the technology of foundation preparation. In most cases, such cracks do not pose a serious danger, they allow you to do with simple plastering. The most dangerous are diagonal cracks, which can lead to the destruction of the foundation.
There are cracks in size:
- small, up to 3 mm;
- large and through.
When a crack is noticed, it is necessary to observe it for some time to understand how to act – on your own or call professionals. The PomWaterproofing company will help you tell whether cracks in the foundation need repair, and will reliably carry out repairs. Is it possible to build a house if the foundation is cracked? If the crack is up to 3 mm, then it is enough to cover it with a solution and continue construction. Larger cracks and vertical faults are evidence of serious violations of technology. the house may sink or collapse altogether. Therefore, the damaged area is filled in again.
How to understand how dangerous a crack is?
Crack in the foundation can frighten anyone very much, but it’s good that not all faults lead to destruction. A small crack can remain small for decades, requiring almost no intervention.
How to make a diagnosis?
- The crack is cleaned of dust, lighthouses are installed. As a beacon, you can use a gypsum solution, which is applied to the end of the crack in the form of a recumbent figure eight. A piece of thin paper will do. Do not forget to record the date of installation of the beacon.
- The lighthouse is monitored for a long time, exactly at least 3 months.
- If the lighthouse remains intact, the crack does not grow further, then everything is fine, you should not worry.
- If the crack has grown by 0.5 mm in a year, then this is not a reason to worry, we are dealing with the consequences of temperature changes.
- If the crack has grown by 1-5 mm in a year, it is still necessary to observe. Perhaps the situation will stabilize. If the growth continues, we will have to strengthen the foundation.
- If the crack has increased by 3-5 mm in just a month and there is no attenuation of the process, then urgent measures should be taken.
- An increase in the crack by 15-20 mm per year without hints of stopping the destructive process is also a signal for strengthening work.
5 Ways to Find Out if a Crack in the Foundation Needs to be Repaired
Before starting the repair, it is necessary to diagnose and understand whether repairs should be carried out. There are five signs to find out if a crack in the foundation needs to be repaired:
- On the ground floor of the building, plaster began to crumble, for no apparent and objective reason.
- The walls began to deform.
- Outside and inside the building itself, a kind of grid consisting of cracks began to appear.
- In window and door openings, as well as in vents and windows for ventilation, a skew began to be observed.
- The position of water and sewer pipes has changed.
If one or more of the above problems are found, first of all it is necessary to find out in what year the building was built, what was its original appearance, and also what changes occurred in it during use. It is also worth analyzing all the technical documentation.
After that, it is necessary to determine the reasons that led to the breakdown. To do this, you should study the condition of the territory adjacent to the house, as well as conduct a thorough study of the ground and underground parts of the house.
The above measures will allow us to determine whether it is really necessary to carry out repair work of the foundation, or whether changes have occurred due to the process of shrinkage of the building that has not yet been completed, or because of construction work in close proximity to it.
If there are 2 of the above circumstances, then all of the above changes will take place after some time. But if the house is already several decades old, then we can say that the foundation has been destroyed and it needs to be repaired.
Cracks in the foundation are a serious problem. Ignoring it can lead to the destruction of the foundation of the house. At the first signs, you should seek professional help. This is a concern for the safety of the household.